Guidelines for Authors

Authors must submit all manuscripts using the online submission and peer review system at http://ajr.edmgr.com.

Submission and peer review questions should be addressed to: AJRsubmit@arrs.org

Update: Please refer to descriptions below of recently added manuscript types, including AJR Viewbox, Viewpoint, and Practice Pearl. Please also refer to the updated description of flexible formatting for initial submissions.

 

GENERAL INFORMATION

The AJR publishes high-quality clinically oriented articles in all radiology subspecialties. The journal publishes a variety of article types, including original research, reviews, and editorials. Studies should be relevant to radiologists' clinical practice.

Submitted articles will first be assessed by editorial board members. Manuscripts will be evaluated with respect to novelty, impact, rigor, and suitability of the material for the journal's general radiology audience. The editorial board may render a final decision based on its evaluation of the submission or choose to send the paper for external peer review using a double-blind review process. External reviewers will be provided a 10-day window to complete their review to facilitate a rapid decision. A comprehensive technical check to ensure compliance with journal guidelines will be performed when a revision is requested from the authors. The Editor-in-Chief will issue the final acceptance for all articles.

 

ARTICLE TYPES

TYPE OF ARTICLE
MAXIMUMS
Number of Authors
Abstract
(words, type)
Word counta
References
Tables
Figures
(figure parts)
Original Research
 
Yes
(350,structured)
4500
50
5
7 (15)
Systematic Review/
Meta-Analysis

 
Yes
(350,structured)
4500
100
5
7 (15)
Review
 
Yes
(200,unstructured)
4500
100
5
12 (30)
Best Practices
 
Yes
(200,unstructured)
4500
100
5
12 (30)
Short Report

Yes
(75,unstructured)
700
8
Tables and figures combined
cannot exceed 2
Clinical Perspective

Yes
(200,unstructured)
4500
75
3
12 (30)
Viewpoint 3 Yes
(75,unstructured)
1200b
7 One small table or figure
Practice Pearl 5 No
400
2 0
2 (4)
AJR Viewbox 2 No 150
2 0 1 (3)
Letter to the Editor
3
No
400
4d
0
2 (4)
Reply to Letter to the Editorc
 
No
400
4d
0
2 (4)
AJR Expert Panel Narrative Reviewc
 
Yes
(200,unstructured)
4500
100 5
12 (30)
Point/Counterpointc
(limits are per side)
2
No
1000
6
0
1 (2)
Editorial Commentc
1
No
300
3
0
0
Beyond the AJRc
2
No
600
5
0
0
Society-Endorsed Statement
 
Yes
(200,unstructured)
4500
100 5
12 (30)
a-Word count is exclusive of abstract, references, table legends, and figure legends.
b-Maximum of 1000 words if submission includes a table or figure
c-By invitation only
d-In addition to references to the article being discussed and the letter if a reply

 

Original Research

Hypothesis-based investigation that attempts to provide strong evidence as to the validity of the hypothesis. The manuscript is organized into the following four major sections: Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion. Authors are also referred to the AJR Author Guide for Original Research for further guidance regarding this article type.

Highlights: Organized into the following two sections: Key Finding (maximum 50-word summary of the study’s most important result, expressed using concrete content) and Importance (maximum 25-word summary of the importance of the Key Finding).

Abstract: Maximum 350 words, organized into the following six sections: Background, Objective, Methods, Results, Conclusion, and Clinical Impact.

Maximums: 4500 words (Introduction through Discussion); 50 References (100 for articles in Evidence Synthesis and Decision Analysis section); 5 Tables; 7 Figures (15 total Figure parts)

Supplemental Content allowed for necessary tables and figures beyond the maximums for the primary article (see below regarding submission guidelines).

 

Systematic Review/Meta-Analysis

Investigation of a defined clinical question based on a selection and synthesis of the available evidence, possibly with a statistical summary to aid the content synthesis. Articles should follow the PRISMA-Diagnostic Test Accuracy reporting guidelines, ensuring that the expected reporting items are included in each section of the Abstract and main text. The manuscript is organized into the following four major sections: Introduction, Evidence Acquisition, Evidence Synthesis, and Discussion.

Highlights: Organized into the following two sections: Key Finding (maximum 50-word summary of the study’s most important result, expressed using concrete data) and Importance (maximum 25-word summary of the importance of the provided key finding).

Abstract: Maximum 350 words, organized into the following six sections: Background, Objective, Evidence Acquisition, Evidence Synthesis, Conclusion, and Clinical Impact.

Maximums: 4500 words (Introduction through Discussion); 100 References; 5 Tables; 7 Figures (15 total Figure parts)

Supplemental Content allowed for necessary tables and figures beyond the maximums for the primary article (see below regarding submission guidelines).

 

Review

Scholarly analysis of recent developments on a specific topic as reported in the literature. No new data are presented. Articles presenting personal experiences or opinions should be submitted as a Clinical Perspective or Viewpoint articles, respectively.

Highlights: Three bulleted key points (maximum 25 words per point) reflecting the article’s key messages.

Abstract: Maximum 200 words, unstructured.

Maximums: 4500 words; 100 References; 5 Tables, 12 Figures (30 total Figure parts).

 

Best Practices

Review of the available evidence for an important clinical question that seeks to provide practice guidance. In comparison with traditional reviews, these articles (1) are more narrowly focused on a specific question (e.g. “what is the best imaging technique to evaluate right lower quadrant pain in a pregnant patient”) and (2) have a strong emphasis on evidence evaluation. Authors heavily probe, summarize, and synthesize the available evidence and may incorporate a formal meta-analysis. Critically, authors are asked to provide guidance in the absence of perfect information and to highlight gaps in evidence that call for additional research. The manuscript is organized into the following seven sections: (1) Clinical Vignette and Image(s), (2) The Imaging Question, (3) Background/Importance, (4) Synopsis and Synthesis of Evidence, (5) Evidence-Based Recommendations or Evidence-Based Guidelines, (6) Outstanding Issues that Warrant Research, and (7) Summary (which should be divided into two subsections, Recommendations for Best Practices and Recommendations for Further Research). The title of the article should begin with “Best Practices:”. For examples, please refer to the AJR Collection on Best Practices.

Highlights: Three bulleted key points (maximum 25 words per point) reflecting the article’s key messages.

Abstract: Maximum 200 words, unstructured.

Maximums: 4500 words; 100 References; 5 Tables, 12 Figures (30 total Figure parts).

 

Short Report

Hypothesis-driven research article based on a focused data set. These articles will generally present novel or exploratory findings that can be summarized more briefly than the investigations found in Original Research articles. The article is organized into the following four major sections: Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion (no sub-headings allowed). The article must fit within 2 pages in the print issue.

Abstract: Maximum 75 words, unstructured

Maximums: 700 words; 8 References; Figures and Tables combined cannot exceed 2. Tables should be short. Figures should contain one or two parts (three parts allowed for manuscripts with one Figure and no Table).

Supplemental Content allowed for brief, absolutely necessary, additional description of methods, but may not contain tables or figures.

 

Clinical Perspective

Description of the authors’ retrospective experience with a specific clinical subject. The text describes “how and/or why we do it.” There may be little or no original information and limited analysis of the literature. This is not an appropriate venue for a Case Report-type of paper.

Highlights: One key point (maximum 25 words) reflecting the article's key message

Abstract: Maximum 200 words, unstructured.

Maximums: 4500 words; 75 References; 3 Tables; 12 Figures (30 total Figure parts).

 

Viewpoint

Short article addressing any matter of general interest to AJR readership. Topics may be interpretive or non-interpretive in nature, including for example diversity, health equity, global health, education, and artificial intelligence. May be used to express the author’s personal judgment on a controversial topic. The article must fit within 2 pages in the print issue.

Abstract: Maximum 75 words, unstructured.

Maximums: 3 authors; 1200 words (1000 if including a table or figure); 7 References; Single small table or figure allowed

 

Practice Pearl

Description of a tool or trick of the trade, based on the authors' clinical experience. Submissions may address any aspect of radiology practice, including image acquisition, interpretation, and reporting, as well as non-interpretive areas such as reading room workflow or practice management. The article is organized into the following two sections: Challenge and Solution. This is not an appropriate venue for a Case Report-type of paper. The images must not have been previously published in any form. The article must fit within 2 pages in the print issue.

Maximums: 5 authors; 400 words; 2 References; 0 Tables; 2 Figures (4 total Figure parts)

 

AJR Viewbox

Clinically useful high-quality radiologic depiction relevant to radiologists' practice. The case should be impactful for readers, for example demonstrating a common entity using a new imaging technique or illustrating an update in the understanding of an entity that is assessed by imaging. Rare or extreme case reports are not the primary focus of this manuscript type. The images must not have been previously published in any form. The article must fit on a single page in the final print issue, which may necessitate adjustments to the images during the article production process. The submission may include a single video as supplemental content.

Maximums: 2 authors; 150 words; 2 References; 0 Tables; 1 Figure (3 total Figure parts); 1 Video

 

Letter to the Editor / Reply to Letter

Objective and constructive criticism of articles published in the AJR within the previous 2 months. Letters will rarely be considered if submitted later than 2 months after the article’s initial publication. Only data documented in published material should be included in the letter. Letters should not duplicate prior published material or be under consideration for publication elsewhere. The Editorial staff will publish letters at their discretion. Submitted letters are subject to editing of content and style.

Maximums: 3 authors (for replies to a letter, any or all of the authors of the original article may be authors of the reply); 400 words; 4 References (in addition to references to the article being discussed and the letter if a reply); 0 Tables; 2 Figures (4 total Figure parts)

 

AJR Expert Panel Narrative Review*

Review by experts from multiple institutions on a timely topic in the specialty. Although the review should be informed by available literature, the literature may be summarized in an unstructured format, differentiating this article type from a systematic review or meta-analysis. The invited expert panel should provide a list of consensus statements or opinions at the conclusion of the review. The title of the article should end with “:AJR Expert Panel Narrative Review”. By invitation only.

Abstract: Maximum 200 words, unstructured

Maximums: 4500 words; 100 References; 5 Tables; 12 Figures (30 total Figure parts)

 

Point/Counterpoint*

Expert commentaries debating a controversial clinical issue. By invitation only.

Maximums (per side): 2 authors; 1000 words; 6 References; 0 Tables; 1 Figure (2 total Figure parts), must be radiologic images (not graphs or charts)

 

Editorial Comment*

Brief commentary for Original Research and Review articles, provided by the individuals who performed the article’s external peer review. By invitation only.

Maximums: 1 author; 300 words; 3 References; 0 Tables; 0 Figures

 

Beyond the AJR*

Critique of a radiology-related investigation appearing outside of the peer-reviewed radiology literature. The article is organized into the following three sections: Summary of the Investigation, Critical Analysis, and Takeaway Point (a single-sentence summary of the investigation’s impact for radiologists). By invitation only.

Maximums: 2 authors; 600 words; 5 References; 0 Tables; 0 Figures

 

Society-Endorsed Statement

Guideline, consensus statement, or white paper that originates from a specialty society or comparable entity. The article should address a topic of current importance in the field, be evidence-based, and express an opinion or stance on the matter. The submission should be accompanied by a letter from the society board or other appropriate body that endorses the work.

Abstract: Maximum 200 words, unstructured

Highlights: Three bulleted key points (maximum 25 words per point) reflecting the statement's key messages.

Maximums: 4500 words; 100 References; 5 Tables; 12 Figures (30 total Figure parts). These maximums are flexible; the editorial board may allow a larger number of manuscript elements, if deemed appropriate for the specific statement.

 

GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR ALL SUBMISSIONS

  • All submissions are processed automatically through Similarity Check. Authors will need to appropriately address any duplicative content before acceptance.
  • The manuscript should be blinded so as to not reveal the authors’ identity. Authors’ names and affiliations should not appear anywhere in the manuscript text or images. Redact the authors’ initials within the Methods section
  • References should not be redacted as this may indirectly identify the authors and thereby unblind the work. References to the authors’ earlier work should be provided in the third person (e.g., “as shown by an earlier investigation”) and maintain the full citation rather than being described in the first person (e.g., “as shown in an earlier study by our group”) with a redacted citation
  • Authors will be asked in Editorial Manager to provide a copy of any prior abstract or presentation on which the submission is based. In addition, if the authors no longer retain the copyright to the abstract, then the authors must provide a written statement from the sponsoring organization granting permission to use the abstract as a basis for the new article or indicating that permission is not required
  • Authors will be asked in Editorial Manager if there are any previous publications, including manuscripts accepted or under review, that might be regarded as the same or very similar work as the submission, as well as if there are previous publications, including manuscripts accepted or under review, with overlap in patient cohort. In the event of prior similar work or an overlapping patient cohort, the authors will be asked to explain further the nature of the overlap. In addition, the Methods section of the manuscript should cite the overlapping work and explain the difference between the prior and current studies. PDFs of the overlapping articles should be uploaded with the submission
  • Upon submission, the authors must attest that the manuscript does not include any materials copyrighted by other sources. This includes all tables and figures. If a table or figure is reprinted or adapted from an earlier source, then the original source should be cited and both a copy of the original version and permission from the original publisher should be provided. Quotation of text of more than 50 words, as well as use of a different image slice from the same patient or case as in an earlier publication, will be considered an adaptation, and these same requirements apply.
  • Written permissions must indicate permission to reprint or adapt the material in both print and electronic media. The online submission system provides an option for uploading permission documents.
  • When accepted, all materials, including figures, tables, and supplemental content, become the property of AJR/ARRS according to the terms of the Copyright Transfer and Author Certification Agreement

 

AUTHORSHIP

  • All authors must fulfill all criteria for authorship as described by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) Guidelines for Defining the Role of Authors and Contributors. The corresponding author attests to the criteria during the submission process. All co-authors receive an email with a link to a page in which they must attest to fulfilling these criteria.
  • All authors must have approved the submitted manuscript and are deemed accountable for the manuscript’s contents
  • If the number of authors appears disproportionate to the scope of work for a given submission, the journal reserves the right to request more information from the authors regarding each individual’s role in the conduct of the work. Simply having participated in the clinical care of the patients who are the subject of an article does not warrant inclusion as an author.
  • To add, remove, or change the order of authors after execution of the Copyright Transfer and Author Certification Agreement, the corresponding author must provide an explanation for the reason for the change; all co-authors will receive an email from the journal office to confirm their consent to the change. Adding or removing coauthors, or changing the order of authors, is not allowed after acceptance.

 

INITIAL SUBMISSIONS: FLEXIBLE FORMATTING

  • Initial submissions may be organized using any reasonable scientific format (e.g., Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion). The format is flexible, and initial submissions do not need to be in full compliance with journal guidelines (e.g., for abstract organization or references format). Manuscripts will need to be properly formatted if a revision is requested.
  • For initial submissions, tables and figures may be incorporated into the text rather than placed at the end of the manuscript file.
  • For initial submissions, providing the complete author list in the title page Word document is sufficient. Only the corresponding author's information needs to be entered into the author list in the online submission system. If a revision is requested, then all coauthor information needs to be entered in the online submission system when submitting the revision.

 

RESUBMISSIONS

  • Resubmissions must be submitted through the online peer review system and include the following files:
  • A point-by-point detailed response to the Editors and/or reviewers’ comments, submitted as an MS Word document. Responses should be preceded by the reviewer and comment number (e.g., “Rev 2, Comment 4”) and the text of the reviewer comment.
  • An annotated copy of the revised manuscript with changes tracked or highlighted. Changes should be identified by the reviewer number and comment number in the margins or in the text to make it clear to the Editors and/or reviewers which comment the change is addressing
  • A clean unannotated version of the revised manuscript (without any embedded figures)
  • All figures must be uploaded as individual TIFF or PNG files (even if there are no changes or revisions to the figures)
  • Resubmissions must adhere to the given article type’s limits for words, references, tables, figures, and figure parts, or else will be returned to the authors to be corrected. The authors are expected to adhere to all such limits in their resubmission even if additional text, references, tables, or figure parts have been requested by the reviewers or editors.

 

MANUSCRIPT ORGANIZATION

The manuscript is organized as follows: full title page, highlights (when required for the article type), abstract (when required for the article type), main manuscript text, references, tables, figure legends, and figures. Aside from the full title page (and figures for resubmissions) and supplemental content (if any), all of these components (including Highlights and Abstract, when required) should be submitted as a single Microsoft Word document. Pages must be numbered consecutively beginning with the abstract. Do not use line numbering.

 

Full Title Page

  • A separate Microsoft Word document that will not be included in the PDF that goes to the reviewers
  • Title of article
  • Type of article (i.e., article category)
  • Names, academic degrees, email addresses, telephone numbers, complete institutional addresses (including zip code), and Twitter handles (if available) of all authors and coauthors with one corresponding author clearly identified. Co-corresponding authors are not allowed. The Full Title Page is the primary source used when determining final order of authors at manuscript acceptance
  • Present addresses of authors who have moved since the study was completed
  • Funding sources (from grants and other sources)
  • Author disclosures, listed individually. If there are no disclosures, that fact must be explicitly stated.

 

References

  • References are numbered consecutively in the order in which they appear in the text.
  • All references are cited in the text, the reference numbers are enclosed in brackets, and are typed on line with the text (not superscripted)
  • Authors are responsible for the accuracy of cited references
  • Citations from internet sources should provide the name of the author(s), the title of the web page, the URL, the page’s original publication or creation date, and the date the page was visited
  • Cited journal articles are retrievable (i.e., published online or in print). Do not cite manuscripts in preparation, under review or revision, or accepted but not yet published in some form.
  • Personal communications are not cited in the reference list but are cited parenthetically in the text, for example: (Smith DJ, personal communication).
  • Papers presented at a meeting are not cited in the reference list but are cited parenthetically in the text, for example: (Smith DJ, et al., presented at the 2003 annual meeting of the American Roentgen Ray Society). After first mention, use (Smith DJ, et al., 2003 ARRS meeting)
  • Style and punctuation of references follow the format illustrated in the following examples. All authors are listed when six or fewer; when seven or more authors, the first three are listed, followed by et al. Inclusive page numbers (e.g., 333–335) are given for all references. Journal names are abbreviated according to Index Medicus.
  • Journal article

    1. Long RS, Roe EW, Wu EU, et al. Membrane oxygenation: radiographic appearance. AJR 1986; 146:1257–1260

    Book

    2. Smith LW, Cohen AR. Pathology of tumors, 6th ed. Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins, 1977:100–109

    Chapter in a book

    3. Breon AJ. Serum monitors of bone metastasis. In: Clark SA, ed. Bone metastases. Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins, 1983:165–180

 

Tables

  • Tables should be included at the end of the manuscript MS Word file, following the References, and be in an editable format. Embedded images of tables, tables in MS Excel (.xls) format, and links to tables in other applications, are all not allowed.
  • Each table has a short, descriptive title, and each column has a heading
  • Tables do not exceed two pages in length and must contain at least two columns and at least two rows (in addition to the header rows).
  • Tables are numbered in the order in which they are cited in the text. Each table should have a discrete number. Numbering tables as 1A and 1B is not allowed and is counted as two tables for total number of tables
  • Abbreviations are defined in an explanatory note below each table
  • Figures should NOT be embedded in table cells as these will not display correctly in the online version of the article

 

Figures and Figure Legends

  • Legends use AJR style: Fig. 1—47-year-old woman with rheumatoid arthritis. For each subject, supply age, sex, and condition or diagnosis. The AJR figure legend style (age and sex and diagnosis) helps specifically with search and retrieval algorithms, increasing the utility of the journal and its content
  • All figure parts relating to one patient should have the same figure number. Each figure part is considered an image when counting total number of images
  • Electronic manipulation of images that materially alters the medical information must be identified and the nature of the alterations described
  • Line drawings and graphs are in black on a white background, using the same size type as the text.
  • Authors’ names and hospital or institutional affiliations do not appear anywhere on the images. For peer review, artist names on images should be blinded or pixelated
  • Names or other personal-identifying information do not appear anywhere on the images. If person(s) are identifiable in the figure, authors must submit with the manuscript a permission form completed and signed by the identifiable person(s)

 

Figure Files

Original Submission

  • For the original submission, figures must be embedded in the MS Word document, at the conclusion of the manuscript following the References and any Tables.
  • Figure legends should be directly above or below the corresponding image
  • Each figure part is counted as one image when counting total number of images

Resubmissions

  • For resubmissions, the files must be submitted as separate TIFF or PNG files. Other formats (e.g., JPEG, EPS, GIF, PICT, PowerPoint) or lower resolutions will not be usable
  • Images should be submitted in black and white unless color is necessary
  • Submit a separate file for each figure part, using the following naming convention: Figure_01a.tif, Figure_01b.tif, Figure_02a.tif, etc
  • Image Size—All images should be no more than 5 inches in height or width
  • Black & white images: TIFF format, Grayscale mode, 300 DPI resolution, No layered files, No alpha channels, No color profiles assigned
  • Color images: 300 DPI resolution, No layered files, No alpha channels, Color profile if used: CMYK (No Indexed color, Lab, or RGB profiles)
  • Line art: 1200 DPI resolution, Grayscale or Bitmap mode, No layered files, No alpha channels, color profile if used: CMYK (No Indexed color, Lab, or RGB profiles)

 

Supplemental Content

  • For all article types other than Original Research and Systematic Review/Meta-analysis, supplemental content is limited to video files or content not otherwise suitable for print; for Short Report, the supplement may also contain brief, absolutely necessary, additional description of methods, but may not contain tables or figures.
  • All of the supplemental Methods, Tables and Figures must be provided within a SINGLE WORD file. This file should first contain the supplemental Methods (labeled Supplemental Methods), then all of the supplemental Tables (labeled Table S1, Table S2, Table S3, etc.), followed by all of the supplemental Figures (labeled Figure S1, Figure S2, Figure S3, etc). The supplemental Methods as well as all supplemental Tables and Figures must be called out in the manuscript text.
  • The supplemental Methods, Tables, and Figures may cite additional references that are self-contained with respect to the supplement (i.e., not cited by the primary article). These references should be numbered S1, S2, S3, etc., in the order in which they appear in the supplement, with full citation information provided in a separate references section at the conclusion of the supplement.
  • Authors must own the copyright to all Supplemental Content elements at the time of submission
  • The Supplemental Content will undergo external peer review along with the rest of the manuscript. For accepted manuscripts, the Supplemental Content will be made available online only without any further corrections, copyediting, or layout by the journal. A statement will be inserted at the start of the Supplement indicating that the Supplemental content are in the form originally provided by the authors. The authors therefore will be accountable for such material’s accuracy

 

Video submission guidelines

  • File format: .mp4 preferred, but can accept .mov, .wmv, .mpg, .mpeg, or .avi (or .mp3 for audio files). No Flash or streaming video files
  • File size: up to 100 MB (split up videos into parts if larger)
  • Minimum dimensions: 320 pixels wide by 240 pixels deep
  • Maximum length: 10 minutes
  • Verify that the videos are viewable in QuickTime or Windows Media Player
  • If multiple video files are submitted, number them in the order in which they should be viewed
  • If person(s) are identifiable in the video, authors must submit with the manuscript a permission form completed and signed by the identifiable person(s)
  • All identifying information (unless the person has granted permission), brand or product logos, and institutional logos must be removed from any video components

 

Procedure for editor conflict-of-interest

  • For submissions for which the Editor-in-Chief or Section Editor has an institutional affiliation, the Editor with the affiliation will be recused and the manuscript will be handled exclusively by the other Editor. For manuscripts for which both the Editor-in-Chief and Section Editor have an institutional affiliation, or for which the Editor-in-Chief is a co-author regardless of whether the Section Editor has an institutional affiliation, an independent consulting editor-at-large will handle the manuscript